Publication Ethics

Publication is a reflection of the caliber of articles and the institutions that produced them. A scientific approach can be supported and achieved through the publication of articles that have undergone anonymous peer review. Therefore, all parties involved in the publication process (editors, peer reviewers, and authors) must adhere to an ethical standard. This ethical standard has been adopted from Elsevier (

Ethical Standards For Editors

  1. Publication Decision

The editor-in-chief is responsible for determining which articles from submitted articles will be published. This determination is based on the validity of the article and its contribution to researchers and viewers. In carrying out his or her responsibilities, the editor-in-chief is guided by the editorial board's policies and applicable laws and regulations, such as those pertaining to defamation, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor-in-chief may consult with other editors or peer assessors when making important decisions.

  1. Peer Review Process

The editor-in-chief is responsible for ensuring that the peer review procedure is timely, equitable, and impartial. The article will be evaluated by a minimum of two independent peer reviewers, and if necessary, the editor will solicit additional opinions. The board of editors will select peer reviewers with pertinent expertise in relevant sciences, adhering to best practices to prevent the selection of fake peer reviewers. The board of editors will evaluate all disclosures of potential conflicts of interest and suggestions for self-citation made by peer reviewers in order to determine the possibility of bias.

  1. Objective Assessment

The board of editors evaluates a manuscript solely on the basis of its intellectual content, without regard to religion, ethnicity, gender, nationality, etc.

  1. Confidentiality and Conflict of Interest

The editorial staff will not reveal any information about the submitted manuscript to anyone other than the author, the reviewer, and potential reviewers. Unless the author and relevant peer reviewers agree otherwise, the editorial staff will maintain the confidentiality of all materials submitted to the journal and all communications with peer reviewers and related parties. In exceptional cases and in consultation with the publisher, the editorial team may share limited information with other journal editors deemed necessary to investigate a possible research error.

Without the author's written permission, research materials (data, research instruments, etc.) contained in unpublished manuscripts may not be used in editorial team members' research. Special data or concepts obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for one's own advantage.

An editor board member should refuse to review a manuscript if he or she has a competing, collaborative, or other relationship with the authors, corporations, or institutions associated with the manuscript.

  1. Devotion to the Published Record

When presented with convincing evidence of misconduct, an editor should coordinate with the publisher (and/or society) to ensure the prompt publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other relevant correction to the record.

Ethical Standards for Peer Reviewers

  1. Contribution to Editorial Decision

Peer review, which is performed by peer reviewers, assists the editor-in-chief in making editorial decisions. Peer review is a crucial aspect of formal scientific communication and scientific methodology.

If a reviewer feels unqualified for a manuscript review or is unable to complete the review on time, he or she must promptly notify the editorial team.

  1. Confidentiality

Any manuscripts received for evaluation must be regarded as confidential documents. The peer evaluators are prohibited from displaying or discussing their results without the editorial team's permission.

Without the author's written permission, peer examiners may not use research materials (data, research instruments, etc.) contained in unpublished manuscripts for their own research.

  1. Awareness of Ethical Issues

Peer reviewers are responsible for identifying scientific articles that were not cited by the author. According to the knowledge of the peer reviewers, the editorial team should be informed of any substantial or overlapping similarities between the manuscript being evaluated and previously published works. Any previously published statements regarding observations or arguments should be accompanied by appropriate citations.

  1. Standards of Objectivity and Conflict of Interest

Reviews should be objectively conducted. Peer reviewers must be cognizant of their own subjectivity, which may arise during manuscript evaluation. The reviewer's viewpoints should be articulated with supporting evidence.

If peer reviewers recommend that an author include their articles (or those of their colleagues), it should be for scientific reasons and not to increase the number of citations or visibility of their work.

Ethical Standards for Authors

  1. Reporting Standards

The author should present an authentic research report on the study, as well as an objective analysis and discussion of the study's significance. The manuscript should precisely present the research findings. To allow others to replicate the scientific study, the manuscript must contain sufficient references and be exhaustive. It is unethical and impermissible to present a fraudulent or inaccurate manuscript.

  1. Data Access

The authors of a paper may be required to provide supporting data for review. The author may provide public access to such data if feasible, and should be able to retain such data for a reasonable amount of time following publication.

  1. Originality and Plagiarism

The authors should ensure that their scientific work is original, and if they have used the works and/or words of others, they have cited or quoted them appropriately. Plagiarism in any form is unethical and unacceptable in the publication of scientific works. There are numerous types of plagiarism, including passing off another's paper as one's own, duplicating or rewriting substantial portions of another's work without citing the source, and claiming another's work as one's own.

  1. Terms of Submission

The same article cannot be published in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript simultaneously to multiple journals or principal publications is unethical and unacceptable.

  1. Authorship of Manuscripts

Authorship should be limited to those who contributed substantially to the conception, design, implementation, or interpretation of the research. Everyone who has made a substantial contribution must be listed as co-authors. Others who have contributed to certain substantive aspects of the research (such as revising the language) may be acknowledged in the section of the paper titled "Acknowledgments." The corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have been included in the manuscript, that all co-authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have agreed to its publication.

  1. Hazards and Human Research Objects

If the research involves human subjects, the author must ensure that the manuscript contains a statement explaining that all procedures comply with applicable laws and have been approved by the appropriate institution. The author should include a statement in the manuscript indicating that consent has been obtained for human subject experimentation. The privacy rights of the human subject must always be respected, and the author must acquire approvals, permissions, and statements before including case details or other personal information in the manuscript. The author should keep the written consent and, if requested by the journal, must provide a copy of the agreement.

  1. Errors in Published Works

When the author discovers significant errors or inaccuracies in his or her own published work, he or she is required to report them to the journal's editorial staff and immediately retrieve or correct the manuscript in collaboration with the journal's editorial staff. If the editorial team learns from third parties that a published manuscript contains errors, the author is obligated to withdraw or revise the manuscript or provide evidence of the manuscript's accuracy.